TRAJECTORY ADJUSTMENT OF MOBILE LASER SCAN DATA IN GPS DENIED ENVIRONMENTS
Keywords: MLS, mobile mapping, LiDAR, long tunnel survey, GPS denied environment
Abstract. Mobile mapping often occurs in environments with poor or no GNSS signal reception (tunnels, urban canons, canopy …). Most mobile scanning systems are equipped with tactical grade inertial systems, GNSS outages longer than 30-60 seconds may lead to a rapid decrease in absolute positioning accuracy that might be below the client's expectations. In order to guarantee sufficient positioning accuracy even in such environments the data must be corrected. This can either happen by readjusting the final point cloud using control points (3D translations) or by directly correcting the trajectory by adding external position updates. The approach presented in this paper consists in detecting targets (either existing or placed before measurement) that can easily be identified in the point cloud and that have been measured independently. By identifying the 3D point closest to the target's center, computing the coordinate difference to the corresponding GCP and retrieving its GNSS-timestamp and the internal scanner coordinates, an external position update at a given time can be computed. This procedure has proven its efficiency in several projects including scanning tunnels up to 5km length, where the positional error (in 3D) of the resulting point cloud could be reduced from 5m (in the middle of the tunnel) down to better than 5cm using GCPS only every 400m.