A MULTI-DATA SOURCE AND MULTI-SENSOR APPROACH FOR THE 3D RECONSTRUCTION AND VISUALIZATION OF A COMPLEX ARCHAELOGICAL SITE: THE CASE STUDY OF TOLMO DE MINATEDA
Keywords: Reconstruction, Multisensor, Aerial Photogrammetry, Laser scanning, Computer vision, Archaeology
Abstract. The complexity of archaeological sites hinders to get an integral modelling using the actual Geomatic techniques (i.e. aerial, closerange photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanner) individually, so a multi-sensor approach is proposed as the best solution to provide a 3D reconstruction and visualization of these complex sites. Sensor registration represents a riveting milestone when automation is required and when aerial and terrestrial dataset must be integrated. To this end, several problems must be solved: coordinate system definition, geo-referencing, co-registration of point clouds, geometric and radiometric homogeneity, etc. Last but not least, safeguarding of tangible archaeological heritage and its associated intangible expressions entails a multi-source data approach in which heterogeneous material (historical documents, drawings, archaeological techniques, habit of living, etc.) should be collected and combined with the resulting hybrid 3D of “Tolmo de Minateda” located models. The proposed multi-data source and multi-sensor approach is applied to the study case of “Tolmo de Minateda” archaeological site. A total extension of 9 ha is reconstructed, with an adapted level of detail, by an ultralight aerial platform (paratrike), an unmanned aerial vehicle, a terrestrial laser scanner and terrestrial photogrammetry. In addition, the own defensive nature of the site (i.e. with the presence of three different defensive walls) together with the considerable stratification of the archaeological site (i.e. with different archaeological surfaces and constructive typologies) require that tangible and intangible archaeological heritage expressions can be integrated with the hybrid 3D models obtained, to analyse, understand and exploit the archaeological site by different experts and heritage stakeholders.