Multi-sensor multi-resolution image fusion for improved vegetation and urban area classification
Keywords: Multi-sensor, multi-resolution, linear mixture model, data fusion, classification
Abstract. In this paper, we perform multi-sensor multi-resolution data fusion of Landsat-5 TM bands (at 30 m spatial resolution) and multispectral bands of World View-2 (WV-2 at 2 m spatial resolution) through linear spectral unmixing model. The advantages of fusing Landsat and WV-2 data are two fold: first, spatial resolution of the Landsat bands increases to WV-2 resolution. Second, integration of data from two sensors allows two additional SWIR bands from Landsat data to the fused product which have advantages such as improved atmospheric transparency and material identification, for example, urban features, construction materials, moisture contents of soil and vegetation, etc. In 150 separate experiments, WV-2 data were clustered in to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 spectral classes and data fusion were performed with 3x3, 5x5, 7x7, 9x9 and 11x11 kernel sizes for each Landsat band. The optimal fused bands were selected based on Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, RMSE (root mean square error) and ERGAS index and were subsequently used for vegetation, urban area and dark objects (deep water, shadows) classification using Random Forest classifier for a test site near Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, California, USA. Accuracy assessment of the classified images through error matrix before and after fusion showed that the overall accuracy and Kappa for fused data classification (93.74%, 0.91) was much higher than Landsat data classification (72.71%, 0.70) and WV-2 data classification (74.99%, 0.71). This approach increased the spatial resolution of Landsat data to WV-2 spatial resolution while retaining the original Landsat spectral bands with significant improvement in classification.