ATLAS BASEMAPS IN WEB 2.0 EPOCH
Keywords: atlas basemaps, big data, innovative LBS systems and applications, neo-cartography, ubiquitous cartography
Abstract. The authors have analyzed their experience of the production of various Electronic Atlases (EA) and Atlas Information Systems (AtIS) of so-called "classical type". These EA/AtIS have been implemented in the past decade in the Web 1.0 architecture (e.g., National Atlas of Ukraine, Atlas of radioactive contamination of Ukraine, and others). One of the main distinguishing features of these atlases was their static nature - the end user could not change the content of EA/AtIS.
Base maps are very important element of any EA/AtIS. In classical type EA/AtIS they were static datasets, which consisted of two parts: the topographic data of a fixed scale and data of the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine. It is important to note that the technique of topographic data production was based on the use of direct channels of topographic entity observation (such as aerial photography) for the selected scale.
Changes in the information technology of the past half-decade are characterized by the advent of the “Web 2.0 epoch”. Due to this, in cartography appeared such phenomena as, for example, "neo-cartography" and various mapping platforms like OpenStreetMap. These changes have forced developers of EA/AtIS to use new atlas basemaps. Our approach is described in the article. The phenomenon of neo-cartography and/or Web 2.0 cartography are analysed by authors using previously developed Conceptual framework of EA/AtIS. This framework logically explains the cartographic phenomena relations of three formations: Web 1.0, Web 1.0x1.0 and Web 2.0.
Atlas basemaps of the Web 2.0 epoch are integrated information systems. We use several ways to integrate separate atlas basemaps into the information system – by building: weak integrated information system, structured system and meta-system. This integrated information system consists of several basemaps and falls under the definition of "big data". In real projects it is already used the basemaps of three strata: Conceptual, Application and Operational. It is possible to use several variants of the basemap for each stratum. Furthermore, the developed methods of integration allow logically coordinate the application of different types of basemaps into a specific EA/AtIS. For example, such variants of the Conceptual strata basemap as the National map of Ukraine of our production and external resources such as OpenStreetMap are used with the help of meta-system replacement procedures.
The authors propose a Conceptual framework of the basemap, which consists of the Conceptual solutions framework of the basemap and few Application solutions frameworks of the basemap. Conceptual framework is intended to be reused in many projects and significantly reduce the resources. We differentiate Application frameworks for mobile and non-mobile environments. The results of the research are applied in few EA produced in 2014-2015 at the Institute of Geography of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. One of them is the Atlas of emergency situations. It includes elements that work on mobile devices. At its core it is "ubiquitous" subset of the Atlas.