HISTORICAL BUILDINGS MODELS AND THEIR HANDLING VIA 3D SURVEY: FROM POINTS CLOUDS TO USER-ORIENTED HBIM
Keywords: HBIM, Points Clouds, LiDAR, Object Recognition, Cultural Heritage, Interoperability
Abstract. This paper retraces some research activities and application of 3D survey techniques and Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the environment of Cultural Heritage. It describes the diffusion of as-built BIM approach in the last years in Heritage Assets management, the so-called Built Heritage Information Modelling/Management (BHIMM or HBIM), that is nowadays an important and sustainable perspective in documentation and administration of historic buildings and structures.
The work focuses the documentation derived from 3D survey techniques that can be understood like a significant and unavoidable knowledge base for the BIM conception and modelling, in the perspective of a coherent and complete management and valorisation of CH. It deepens potentialities, offered by 3D integrated survey techniques, to acquire productively and quite easilymany 3D information, not only geometrical but also radiometric attributes, helping the recognition, interpretation and characterization of state of conservation and degradation of architectural elements. From these data, they provide more and more high descriptive models corresponding to the geometrical complexity of buildings or aggregates in the well-known 5D (3D + time and cost dimensions).
Points clouds derived from 3D survey acquisition (aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, LiDAR and their integration) are reality-based models that can be use in a semi-automatic way to manage, interpret, and moderately simplify geometrical shapes of historical buildings that are examples, as is well known, of non-regular and complex geometry, instead of modern constructions with simple and regular ones. In the paper, some of these issues are addressed and analyzed through some experiences regarding the creation and the managing of HBIMprojects on historical heritage at different scales, using different platforms and various workflow. The paper focuses on LiDAR data handling with the aim to manage and extract geometrical information; on development and optimization of semi-automatic process of segmentation, recognition and modelling of historical shapes of complex structures; on communication of historical heritage by virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) in a 3D reconstruction of buildings aggregates from a LiDAR and UAV survey. The HBIM model have been implemented and optimized to be managed and browse by mobile devices for not only touristic or informative scopes, but also to ensure that HBIM platforms will become more easy and valuable tools helping all professionals of AEC involved in the documentation and valorisation process, that nowadays more and more distinguish CH policies.