The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLII-2/W7
13 Sep 2017
 | 13 Sep 2017


B. Liu, J. Chen, H. Xing, H. Wu, and J. Zhang

Keywords: Downscale, data fusion, MODIS, Landsat, NDVI

Abstract. The spatial detail and updating frequency of land cover data are important factors influencing land surface dynamic monitoring applications in high spatial resolution scale. However, the fragmentized patches and seasonal variable of some land cover types (e. g. small crop field, wetland) make it labor-intensive and difficult in the generation of land cover data. Utilizing the high spatial resolution multi-temporal image data is a possible solution. Unfortunately, the spatial and temporal resolution of available remote sensing data like Landsat or MODIS datasets can hardly satisfy the minimum mapping unit and frequency of current land cover mapping / updating at the same time. The generation of high resolution time series may be a compromise to cover the shortage in land cover updating process. One of popular way is to downscale multi-temporal MODIS data with other high spatial resolution auxiliary data like Landsat. But the usual manner of downscaling pixel based on a window may lead to the underdetermined problem in heterogeneous area, result in the uncertainty of some high spatial resolution pixels. Therefore, the downscaled multi-temporal data can hardly reach high spatial resolution as Landsat data.

A spiral based method was introduced to downscale low spatial and high temporal resolution image data to high spatial and high temporal resolution image data. By the way of searching the similar pixels around the adjacent region based on the spiral, the pixel set was made up in the adjacent region pixel by pixel. The underdetermined problem is prevented to a large extent from solving the linear system when adopting the pixel set constructed. With the help of ordinary least squares, the method inverted the endmember values of linear system. The high spatial resolution image was reconstructed on the basis of high spatial resolution class map and the endmember values band by band. Then, the high spatial resolution time series was formed with these high spatial resolution images image by image.

Simulated experiment and remote sensing image downscaling experiment were conducted. In simulated experiment, the 30 meters class map dataset Globeland30 was adopted to investigate the effect on avoid the underdetermined problem in downscaling procedure and a comparison between spiral and window was conducted. Further, the MODIS NDVI and Landsat image data was adopted to generate the 30m time series NDVI in remote sensing image downscaling experiment. Simulated experiment results showed that the proposed method had a robust performance in downscaling pixel in heterogeneous region and indicated that it was superior to the traditional window-based methods. The high resolution time series generated may be a benefit to the mapping and updating of land cover data.