The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLII-4/W18
18 Oct 2019
 | 18 Oct 2019


S. Khajeh, A. A. Ardalan, and H. Schuh

Keywords: GNSS, Reflectometry, Altimetry, Planar Model, Tropospheric Correction, Ray-Tracing

Abstract. Altimetry by using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) reflectometry is regarded as a new promising technique. One important step to utilize this technique is modeling the interferometric path (the difference between the direct and the reflected signal paths). This paper evaluates three models: the planar model, the planar model with tropospheric correction and a model based on ray-tracing. If decimeter level accuracy for water surface fluctuation is required, the planar model cannot be used when a receiver is at an altitude of a few hundred meters and observations are taken at low elevation angles. On the other hand, depending on the mapping function and zenith total delay in the tropospheric correction, the planar model with tropospheric correction can provide decimeter level accuracy for low altitude stations. If simulated observations with a 1 cm accuracy have been employed to estimate Sea Surface Height (SSH) by the model based on ray-tracing the numerical results present 1 cm as RMSE for phase retrieval and 5 cm for Doppler retrieval. The planar model with tropospheric correction does not yield RMSE better than some decimeters for the same condition.