MAPPING POTENTIAL HABITATS FOR ARTHROPOD VECTORS OF TRYPANOSOMIASIS INFECTION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: AN INTRODUCTORY SYNTHESIS
Keywords: Trypanosomiasis, Tsetse Fly, Northern Nigeria, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, GIS
Abstract. This paper presents an introductory synthesis for mapping potential habitats of arthropod vectors responsible for animal trypanosomiasis diseases in Northern Nigeria, where there is high production of livestock. Animal trypanosomiasis is considered an arthropod-borne viral disease which is endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in northern Nigeria. The disease which is transmitted by the vector tsetse fly remains a threat to both humans and livestock in many rural communities of Nigeria. The outbreak of the disease is known to occur as a result of the changing climate which relates to changes in sea surface temperatures otherwise known as “El Niño Southern Oscillations” (ENSO). Trypanosomiasis is mainly experienced whenever there are changes in global precipitation as a result of the changing climate. Monthly Satellite data of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at 2.5° spatial resolution was sourced from NASA-MODIS/CMD and subjected to principal component analysis using standardized principal components of GIS with a digital elevation model (DEM) supplemented in the analysis. Results revealed pockets of probable habitats of arthropod vectors to be around forest islands characterized by dry woodland and savanna, and in other cases around gallery forests and few lowland and riverine areas. This study demonstrates that geospatial technology is a cost effective tool in mapping of the arthropod vector habitats for Northern Nigeria.