THE CONTRIBUTION OF GEOMATIC TECHNOLOGIES TO BIM
Keywords: BIM, photogrammetry, laser scanning, cultural heritage, 3D documentation
Abstract. There are many definitions of the commonly used abbreviation BIM, but one can say that each user or data supplier has different idea about it. There can be an economic view, or other aspects like surveying, material, engineering, maintenance, etc. The common definition says that Building Information Modelling or Building Information Management (BIM) is a digital model representing a physical and functional object with its characteristics. The model serves as a database of object information for its design, construction and operation over its life cycle, i.e. from the initial concept to the removal of the building. BIM is a collection of interconnected digital information in both protected and open formats, recording graphical and non-graphical data on model elements. There are two facets: a) BIM created simultaneously with the project, or project designed directly in BIM (it is typical of new objects designed in CAD systems - for example in the Revit software) or b) BIM for old or historical objects. The former is a modern technology, which is nowadays used worldwide. From the engineer’s perspective, the issue is the creation of BIM for older objects. In this case, it is crucial to obtain a precise 3D data set - complex 3D documentation of an object is needed and it is created using various surveying techniques. The most popular technique is laser scanning or digital automatic photogrammetry, from which a point cloud is derived. But this is not the main result. While classical geodesy gives selective localized information, the above-mentioned technologies give unselected information and provide huge datasets. Fully automatic technologies that would select important information from the point cloud are still under development. This seems to be a task for the coming years. Large amounts of data can be acquired automatically and quickly, but getting the expected information is another matter. These problems will be analysed in this paper. Data conversion to BIM, especially for older objects, will be shown on several case studies. The first is an older technical building complex transferred to BIM, the second one is a historical building, and the third one will be a historic medieval bridge (Charles Bridge in Prague). The last part of this paper will refer to aspects and benefits of using Virtual Reality in BIM.