ARE MEASURED GROUND CONTROL POINTS STILL REQUIRED IN UAV BASED LARGE SCALE MAPPING? ASSESSING THE POSITIONAL ACCURACY OF AN RTK MULTI-ROTOR PLATFORM
Keywords: UAVs, SfM, RTK, PPK, Direct Georeferencing, 3D Mapping
Abstract. The estimate of External Orientation (E.O.) parameters for a block of images is a crucial step in the photogrammetric pipeline and the most demanding in terms of required time and human effort, both during the fieldwork and post-processing phases. Different researchers developed strategies to minimize the impact of this phase. Despite the achievement of good results, it was not possible until now to completely cancel the effect of this step. However, the efforts of the researchers in these years have also been devoted to the implementation of direct photogrammetry strategies, in order to almost completely automate the E.O. of the photogrammetric block. These new approaches were made possible also thanks to the latest developments of commercial UAVs, especially in terms of the installed GPS/GNSS (Global Positioning System/Global Navigation Satellite System) hardware. The aim of this manuscript is to evaluate the different perspectives and issues connected with the deployment of a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) equipped with a multi-frequency GPS/GNSS receiver. Starting from the considerations mentioned above and leveraging previous works based on a fixed-wing platform, the focus of this contribution is the assessment of the real performances of an RTK multi-rotor platform addressing several questions. Is it possible to generate added-value products with centimetre 3D accuracies without measuring any ground control point? Which are the operational requirements to be taken into account in the planning phase? Are consolidated UAV mapping operational workflows already available to enable a robust direct georeferencing approach?