The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLIII-B1-2022
30 May 2022
 | 30 May 2022


H.-Y. Liu, S. Tsai, M.-L. Tsai, and K.-W. Chiang

Keywords: Inertial Navigation System, Coarse Alignment, Fine Alignment, Allan variance, Extended Kaman Filter

Abstract. The navigation means the process of determining the position, velocity, and orientation of the moving object such as the land vehicle, aerial vehicle, and even autonomous vehicle. Nowadays, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is most used for positioning. Nevertheless, the navigation system based on GNSS would be interrupted in the challenging environments. Therefore, the inertial navigation system (INS) has been widely combined with GNSS to overcome this issue. For INS, the core concept is the measurements of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). In order to integrate the measurements of IMU with several sensors such as GNSS receivers, odometers, and so on, we should transform the measurements of IMU from body frame to navigation frame. The initial alignment just represents the process of finding the accurate initial rotation matrix between body frame and navigation frame in the beginning of navigation. However, initial misalignment angles would cause large error of INS. Hence, obtaining an accurate initial rotation matrix from body frame to navigation frame is an important issue to get the better navigation performance. In the research, an integrated navigation system is developed to validate the initial alignment algorithm. With the data pre-processing and accurate calibration. the proposed method of initial alignment can get precise initial ration matrix. The errors of roll pitch, and yaw angle are all smaller than 1 degree after initial alignment. Moreover, the time threshold of initial alignment is set by manual traditionally. A method of finding threshold of coarse alignment is proposed in this research.