ACCURATE SCALING AND LEVELLING IN UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAMMETRY WITH A PRESSURE SENSOR
Keywords: underwater photogrammetry, pressure sensor, depth, scaling and levelling, low cost, microcontroller
Abstract. Photogrammetry needs known geometric elements to provide metric traceable measurements. These known elements can be a distance between two three-dimensional object points or two camera stations, or a combination of known coordinates and/or angles to solve the seven degrees of freedom that lead to rank deficiency of the normal-equation matrix. In this paper we present a novel approach for scaling and levelling to the local vertical direction an underwater photogrammetric survey. The developed methodology is based on a portable low-cost device designed and realized by the authors that uses depth measurements from a high resolution pressure sensor. The prototype consists of a data logger featuring a pressure sensor synchronized with a digital camera in its underwater pressure housing. The modular design, with optical communication and synchronization, provides great flexibility not requiring the camera housing to undergo any hardware modifications. The proposed methodology allows for a full 3D levelling transformation comprising two angles, a vertical translation and a scale factor and can work for surveying scenes extending horizontally, vertically or both. The paper presents the theoretical principles, an overview of the developed system together with preliminary calibration results. Tests in a lake and at sea are reported. An accuracy better than 1:5000 on the length measurement was achieved in calm water conditions.