The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLIII-B3-2022
31 May 2022
 | 31 May 2022


Q. Kang, J. Zhang, G. Huang, S. Yang, and Z. Zhang

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), High-Accuracy, Airborne Interferometric SAR, Mapping

Abstract. Remote sensing image mapping (aviation, aerospace, UAV) is the main form of current mapping. Optical image mapping has been a certain research foundation and played an important role in the mapping task. However, cloud, ice, snow, rain, and haze conditions seriously affect the interpretation and processing of optical images, making it difficult to meet the needs of rapid emergency response. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is currently the only method that can achieve all-day, all-weather rapid imaging under various weather conditions such as day, night, cloud, snow, rain, etc. With unique advantages unmatched by traditional optical remote sensing technology, it is an important technical guarantee for improving emergency response capabilities and promoting remote sensing and geographic information industries, and an earth observation technology that has been invested and vigorously developed internationally. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) plays an increasingly important role in the application of terrain information acquisition such as rapid acquisition of sudden disasters and surface deformation information acquisition. Rapid acquisition of large area high-accuracy DEM is one of the important research contents of SAR mapping. Based on interferometric SAR data combined with sensor orbit data, external DEM and other auxiliary data, DEM is finally generated through complex image registration, interference image generation, removal of flat ground effects, interference phase filtering, phase unwrapping, interference calibration and geocoding. The registration accuracy of multiple images greatly affects the accuracy of DEM. This paper proposes an improved registration method based on the conventional rough registration, pixel-level registration and sub-pixel registration. When the motion compensation of the sensor platform is unknown during imaging, it can meet the requirements of high-accuracy and large-scale rapid registration of dual-antenna polarization interferometric SAR. The experimental data is X-band airborne SAR data in Weinan region of Shaanxi Province, and DEM products with the elevation accuracy better than 0.5m is generated, which verifies the effectiveness, accuracy and fast processing ability of the method.