The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLIII-B3-2022
30 May 2022
 | 30 May 2022


M. Miraki, H. Sohrabi, and O. Esmailzadeh

Keywords: UAV, RGB images, Random forest classification, Caspian poplar, Sex discrimination, Dioecious trees

Abstract. The sex ratio is the proportion of male to female trees, which has a substantial impact on reproductive success and conservation status. Appropriate sex-related differences in dioecious trees commonly result in leading to a robustly structured population. Fieldwork for sex discrimination is time-consuming and labor-required. Benefiting from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and SfM techniques, the present study aims to detect male and female Caspian poplar (Populus caspica) trees. In March 2021, a heterogeneous forest in Noor city located in Mazandaran province was photographed, then 3D point clouds were extracted from the images using structure from motion algorithm (SfM) to generate an orthomosaic and a point cloud. The field survey was carried out to record the species, sex, and position of the overstory trees which were identifiable on the orthomosaics. A random forest classification algorithm was applied using R software to classify the trees into male and female. By assessing the producer's accuracy, user's accuracy, and overall accuracy, the classification accuracy for identified trees was computed using 10-fold cross-validation. The results showed an accuracy of 83% for identifying Caspian poplar trees and 52% accuracy for Sex discrimination. Overall, our effort to evaluate sex discrimination of dioecious trees using UAV imagery represents a promising preliminary step in forest data collection.