HIGH-RESOLUTION SOLAR ENERGY PARAMETERS UNDER THE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIO FOR JAMMU AND KASHMIR AND LADAKH REGION
Keywords: GHI, RE, MERRA-2, ERA5, Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh
Abstract. Solar technologies are viewed as feasible options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and encouraging long-term adaptation in the context of climate change and rising energy demand. Solar energy is India's second-largest Renewable Energy (RE) source, and playing increasingly important role in the country's low-carbon energy portfolio. Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh are the northernmost states of India, with elevations ranging from 205 to 8564 meters above the mean sea level. Both states are located just south of the Karakorum and have a subtropical and cold-arid environment with scarce renewable energy resources. This study is performed to identify the annual and monthly variation of solar energy potentials for the recent climatological future over the western Himalayan region. The long-term annual average demonstrated the high efficiency of GHI over Leh and Kargil and low over the Jammu and Kashmir region. The monthly variation shows greater GHI values between March and October, varying from 225 to 375 W m−2, and lower from November to February, less than 220 W m−2. The mean ambient 2-m temperature indicates December and January months are bad for solar energy installations, while June and July are excellent. Overall, the findings show that Ladakh has a remarkable solar energy potential and is recommendable for further investigation.