The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLIII-B4-2022
01 Jun 2022
 | 01 Jun 2022


N. B. I. Shakak

Keywords: Hazard, Pollution, Model, Satellite, Scenarios, Sustainability, Integrated, Policy

Abstract. In Khartoum/Sudan the consumption of water per capita in urban areas far below the real need and WHO standard and huge volume of untreated municipal wastes water and industrial waste is discharged directly to an upstream from the town’s sewage water and treatment plants. Only 5% of resident received waste water treatment services, and 95% of waste discharge in unregulated dumps and injected into ground, these leading to pollution of the atmosphere, surface and ground waters, and poses a serious environmental hazard downstream. The main objective of this paper to Simulate pollutant produce from water sector demands being prime indicators of water and environment challenge, using WEAP model, and GIS software.

The methodology used in this study to identified appropriate indicators and creates a model that represents water resource status, and pollution generator sectors for a specific system boundary.

Khartoum satellite Landsat Mosaic Image (copy write), and Digital elevation model, (DEM) for Sudan, from Global ESRI map, and Land cover map, acquired from Sudanese remote sensing and seismology authority are used in this study to create maps.

The Basin Catchment model WEAP21 system scenarios with Remote Sensing, and GIS predicted response and evaluated water deterioration risk quantity and quality related to river Nile catchment area in Khartoum. The model software selected provides decision makers with watershed environmental response factors, with allocation for sustainable water concern lower River Nile catchments.

The model approach across user was taken into consideration to ensure withdrawals, assumed improvement in consumption, researcher assumed building a reservoir to improve quality, and reduces people suffering from water shortage, building expansion to reform waste, with reference time from 2015 and projected year by 2030.To fulfill objectives the models was used for pollutant transport from upstream to watershed, to evaluate the effect of applying alternative management practices by development of different Scenarios.

Water quality data are collected from Ground water central laboratories, also from Khartoum state data base center. While Waste water data collected from waste water treatment plants in the towns, and from constructional and environmental laboratories, centre. Also, field samples were collected from discharge point in lagoons near river shore and from the cross point of discharge into the river. The study result show how satellite technology combined with local monitoring, GIS, and advanced modeling system can be used to investigate the improved accuracy of the model results, and to improve operations and performance of service providers downstream. The result indicated that scenarios can be developed to explore options for the future and sustainability, and implication of various policies can evaluated. For environmental carrying capacities, the model results indicated that, 90% of water consuming by sector demands end at the receptors as waste water need to be treated. The pollutant load produced by those waste water treatment plants were measured and simulated including pollutant (BOD, COD, TSS, Phosphate, Nitrate, Total organic carbon, heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu), which in turn affects the quality of water resources available for direct use. The improvements in water collection systems affect water supply and wastewater treatment, while the improvement in waste water treatment plants after built new environmental expansion and technology may reduce the flow of waste water to receptors 50% by 2030. In order to ensure a long term development of water resources, and to avoid water becoming a limiting factor in the development of dependent activities, we recommend that country should develop environmental pollution reform and management policy based on an integrated management which associates management of surface and underground waters, qualitative and quantitative measures and management of use by various water sector.