THE RESEARCH PROJECT “EARTHEN ARCHITECTURE IN THE IBERIAN PENINSULA: STUDY OF NATURAL, SOCIAL AND ANTHROPIC RISKS AND STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE RESILIENCE (RISK-TERRA)”. OBJECTIVES AND FIRST METHODOLOGY
Keywords: Earthen architecture, Natural risks, Social risks, Conservation, Preventive conservation, Protection
Abstract. The Iberian Peninsula possesses extensive earthen monumental and vernacular architectural heritage. The extension of the territory and its heterogeneous geography and climate, variety of available materials, and cultural diversity are the main factors which have brought about the great wealth of both the architecture, urban and rural settings, and the constructive techniques mainly using earth (rammed earth, adobe, half-timber, cob and its variants). However, despite being an essential part of the Iberian culture, this heritage has been greatly abandoned due to changes in ways of life, the depopulation of rural areas, the lack of social recognition, etc. The research project “Risk-Terra – Earthen architecture in the Iberian Peninsula: study of natural, social and anthropic risks and strategies to improve resilience” (ref. RTI2018-095302-B-I00), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and University (2019–2021) aims to provide a scientific study of natural hazards (floods, landslides, earthquakes, winds, rise of temperatures), social hazards (abandonment, loss of social reputation, demographic pressure, tourism development…) and anthropic hazards (carelessness and negligence, lack of protection and maintenance…), as well as deterioration mechanisms (erosion, loss of materials/parts, collapse…) and transformation dynamics (replacement, use of incompatible techniques and materials…), to which the earthen architecture of the Iberian Peninsula is currently subject. This paper presents the general and specific objectives and the methodology to be used in the project.