FLOOD MONITORING USING SENTINEL-1 SAR DATA: A CASE STUDY BASED ON AN EVENT OF 2018 AND 2019 SOUTHERN PART OF KERALA
Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Flood extent, Flood mapping, Microwave remote sensing, Hazard
Abstract. Flood is a natural hazard influenced by rainfall and dam collapse, which propels release of enormous amount of water. In the last two decades flood is the second largest natural hazards occurred worldwide, which caused serious damage to life properties, settlements and economic activities. Flood mapping is a process that is useful for assessment and reduces the risk factor during the flood. An effective monitoring of flood prone area is necessary to handle GIS techniques and without remote sensing data it is difficult to identify the flooded area in this study Microwave remote sensing plays a lead role in natural hazards, here Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is the best way for monitoring flood hazards. In this study Southern part of the Kerala is chosen as the study area, In August 2018, during the south west monsoon due to heavy rainfall a severe flood affected the southern part of Kerala which saw a 37% increase in the rate of normal rainfall. The objective of the study is to find the flood zone area using SAR data and estimate the flood occurrence over a period of time. However a satellite imagery of optical data is used to analyse the pre and post event of flood, but during a heavy rainfall, cloud may interrupt the data acquisition. SAR satellite imagery fromSentinel-1A is a cloud penetrating data available in all kind of weather conditions during day and night time, which provides a good source of high resolution data sets. To identify the flood affected area an adapted technology of threshold methodology developed by using SAR data and change detection for the year 2018 and 2019, will illustrate flood extended part in southern part of Kerala. The result shows the estimation of flood extended part of the study area and the damages occurred during a flooded time period of post and pre event, vulnerability assessing of crop and agriculture is to obtain an intensity of the damaged areas which is closely associated with the river channel, the Polarization displays a similar sequence for amount of flooding. The study helps to find the reason of flood extent and to equip with better planning for risk reduction and management during a flooding period.