The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-1-2024
10 May 2024
 | 10 May 2024

Robotics for Heritage Surveying: preliminary test on Leica BLK ARC & Spot® toward autonomous 3D mapping

Giulia Sammartano, Alessandra Spreafico, Beatrice Tanduo, and Filiberto Chiabrando

Keywords: Mobile Mapping System, 3D mapping, SLAM, robotics, Cultural Heritage

Abstract. Today, robotics technologies are revolutionizing surveying and construction in AEC fields, enhancing precision, safety, and efficiency and also in the realm of Cultural Heritage knowledge and protection, the integration of cutting-edge technologies is reshaping consolidated surveying methods for documentation, especially in risk scenarios. One such innovation making waves is the use of mobile mapping systems, where automation and expediency are the determining factors in technological development, both in the direction of in indoor positioning (visual/LiDAR SLAM, UWB, etc.) and 3D mapping of known and unknown spaces. The BLK ARC by Leica, equipping the Agile Mobile Robot Spot® by Boston Dynamics, as a dynamic sensing platform, is here presented and discussed. BLK ARC is part of a diverse landscape of mobile mapping systems, each offering unique features and specifications tailored to different surveying needs, from handheld devices and wearable systems, to vehicle-mounted systems, the options vary in dimension, weight, price, and technical capabilities and the recent companies and research are largely focusing on them. A preliminary evaluation takes into consideration the dual dynamic-static 3D data-types, considering local and global accuracy of the 3D data delivered from the first experimental tests in a case study. Different metrics have been considered including acquisition time, precision, resolution, density, accuracy, roughness, and completeness of the acquired data.