DIGITIZATION APPROACHES FOR URBAN CULTURAL HERITAGE: LAST GENERATION MMS WITHIN VENICE OUTDOOR SCENARIOS
Keywords: Urban Cultural Heritage, 3D survey, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Mobile Mapping System, SLAM
Abstract. This paper explores the use of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMSs) for urban Cultural Heritage (CH) documentation, which has become an increasingly important tool in surveying for rapid and accurate mapping of both internal and external environments. The study evaluates the performance of the STONEX® X120GO SLAM Laser Scanner, a recent commercial MMS, in documenting CH in various outdoor applications, including urban environments and inaccessible places. The methodology was applied to three test fields in the historic centre of Venice, which include Piazza San Marco, Santa Marta area, and the Venetian canal called Rio de le Toresele. The STONEX® X120GO SLAM Laser Scanner is composed of a 360° rotating head LiDAR scanner, three 5MP cameras, and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for geospatial 3D point cloud creation. The MMS was evaluated in terms of time, accuracy, and point cloud resolution against other active sensors such as Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLSs) and spherical photogrammetry. The results suggest that the tested MMS has reached optimal levels of development, enabling high-speed data collection and providing good accuracy for significant urban CH sites. Overall, the paper highlights the importance and potential of MMSs for CH documentation and emphasizes the need for ongoing development to optimize the management process.