The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-4/W7-2023
22 Jun 2023
 | 22 Jun 2023


J. Mercier, N. Chabloz, G. Dozot, C. Audrin, O. Ertz, E. Bocher, and D. Rappo

Keywords: Location-Based Augmented Reality, Usability, Exploration, Focus, Comparative user test, Free Open Source Web AR Application, Cartographic Authoring Tool

Abstract. While the use of location-based augmented reality (AR) for education has demonstrated benefits on participants’ motivation, engagement, and on their physical activity, geolocation data inaccuracy causes augmented objects to jitter or drift, which is a factor in downgrading user experience. We developed a free and open source web AR application and conducted a comparative user test (n = 54) in order to assess the impact of geolocation data on usability, exploration, and focus. A control group explored biodiversity in nature using the system in combination with embedded GNSS data, and an experimental group used an external module for RTK data. During the test, eye tracking data, geolocated traces, and in-app user-triggered events were recorded. Participants answered usability questionnaires (SUS, UEQ, HARUS).We found that the geolocation data the RTK group was exposed to was less accurate in average than that of the control group. The RTK group reported lower usability scores on all scales, of which 5 out of 9 were significant, indicating that inaccurate data negatively predicts usability. The GNSS group walked more than the RTK group, indicating a partial effect on exploration. We found no significant effect on interaction time with the screen, indicating no specific relation between data accuracy and focus. While RTK data did not allow us to better the usability of location-based AR interfaces, results allow us to assess our system’s overall usability as excellent, and to define optimal operating conditions for future use with pupils.