The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-4/W9-2024
08 Mar 2024
 | 08 Mar 2024


N. Tekin Ünlütürk and U. Doğan

Keywords: GNSS height component, seasonal variation, IDW, ZTD

Abstract. The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal experiences delays caused by the atmosphere, leading to the lengthening of the geometric path of the ray, commonly referred to as tropospheric delay. This delay is a significant source of error in GNSS positioning, contributing to a bias in the height component of several centimeters, even when meteorological data are simultaneously recorded and used in tropospheric models. In this study, considering seasonal variations, we investigated the impact of tropospheric delay on the GNSS height component. GNSS stations, part of the Turkish RTK CORS Network known as TUSAGA-Active (Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network Active), covered different heights over the 2014–2019 period. Daily coordinates of GNSS stations and tropospheric zenith delay were obtained through the GAMIT/GLOBK software solution.
In the study, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity data of meteorological stations at different heights were converted to mean sea level. By using these values, interpolation estimates were made for the continuous GNSS stations in the same region with the IDW method. The most significant delay in GNSS signals occurs in July and August. This effect, which causes periodic changes in the zenith delay, varies inversely with the station's height. With the increase in the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere in parallel with the rise in the temperature in the summer months, it is seen that the stations at a low height are more exposed to the tropospheric effect than the stations at higher heights. In addition, GNSS stations' reduced meteorological values (temperature, pressure and relative humidity) show that the zenith delay values changed directly proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure and relative humidity.