The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-4/W9-2024
08 Mar 2024
 | 08 Mar 2024


Ö. H. Bettemir

Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Georeferencing, Accuracy, Error Propagation Law, Visual Odometry

Abstract. Usage of small size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with autonomous flight capability became widespread at both civil and military applications because of its low costs and ease of use. However, inertial or GPS based positioning and orientation sensors can be disabled at battlefields and the UAV losses its path in a short time. Visual odometry becomes a solution for the aforementioned hassle. Real-time detection of ground control points, matching the same control points at the stereo pair images and correcting the position and orientation data with least square adjustment are the challenges of visual odometry. In this study, error analysis of position and orientation of a UAV flying through mountainous region which cannot obtain any augmenting data for position and orientation is conducted by error propagation law. The flight of UAV is simulated with exact initial position and orientation data. Optic images of ground obtained by nadir directed camera are georeferenced using the digital elevation model of the region, interior and exterior camera parameters. The digital elevation model is used to correct the relief displacement. The stereo-pair image is obtained when the UAV flies 200 m and image coordinates of the common control points are detected by colinearity equations. Position and orientation of UAV is corrected by least square adjustment and the process is repeated for each obtained image acquired at 200 m interval. The analysis revealed that the precisions of horizontal and vertical positioning becomes 75 and 200 meter, respectively. The precision of roll angle becomes worse than 0.5 degree, while the precisions of pitch and yaw angle are estimate to be better that 0.1 degree.