The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-M-1-2023
08 Jun 2023
 | 08 Jun 2023


S. A. Mahmood, Z. Tahir, S. Batool, A. Masood, M. Haseeb, and M. Muhammad Ali

Keywords: Food Security, Mann-Kendall, RDI, SPI, PET

Abstract. Drought is one of the most severe natural disasters. It negatively influences the crop output considerably as water resources are inadequate across large geographic areas. Food insecurity, hunger, and poverty are widespread in three Pakistani provinces: Baluchistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Sindh. Until March/April 2022, roughly 4.66 million people, or 25% of the population examined, were severely food insecure. Historically, the severity of a drought is evaluated using several different indicators, with the selection of indices depending on the data that is easily accessible. By multiple aspects, including potential evapotranspiration and rainfall data on a standard timescale and computing monthly, seasonal, or annual data, the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) has a significant advantage over the other indices in determining drought severity. When rainfall in a region is significantly lower than the amount of potential evapotranspiration, drought situations can occur on the earth. Rainfall will often occur in locations with an increase in the relative humidity of the air. The reconnaissance drought index (RDI) for Khyber Pakhtaunkhawa province in Pakistan was calculated from 1981 to 2020 for 3-, 6-, and 12-month timeframes. This research employed rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature data from KPK province to describe drought using the DrinC program, the Man Kendall test, and Sen's slope calculator to determine drought patterns and variation. All regions had moderate, severe, and extreme droughts, with RDIs between -1.0 and -3.5. RDI 3-, 6-, and 12-month evaluations highlighted 1991, 1994, 2000, 2010, 2015, and 2017. These results indicate that productivity declines in dry and subsequent years due to seasonal rainfall and soil moisture retention.Wheat production averaged 1.7 tones ha-1 year-1, with significant variations. Between October and December, it is an essential to have favorable growing conditions to increase productivity. If droughts occur in this era, the yield will be substantially more negatively impacted than if they occur later in the growing cycle. The 3-month RDI values offer a more accurate description of this variation than the six-month and twelve-months RDI Values. Geospatial drought analysis indicates a considerable variance in drought patterns across the Kpk province over the last 4 decades. Because long-term droughts sometimes affect water quality, especially groundwater, a rise in the intensity of long-term droughts could pose a risk to the water management in the regions that have been examined. Analysis of the Landsat TM 30 m data took place. At the same time, Landsat imageries were utilized to generate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) for drought evaluation. The findings of the NDWI indicate an increase in value from 0.58 to 0.7 for the KPK region.