POINT-WISE CLASSIFICATION OF HIGH-DENSITY UAV-LIDAR DATA USING GRADIENT BOOSTING MACHINES
Keywords: UAV-LiDAR, multi-scale Hand-crafted features, Point Cloud, Gradient Boosting Machine, LightGBM, Classification
Abstract. Point-wise classification of 3D point clouds is a challenging task in point cloud processing, whereas, in particular, its application to high-density point clouds needs special attention because a large number of point clouds affect computational efficiency negatively. Although deep learning based models have been gaining popularity in recent years and have reached state-of-the-art results in accuracy for point-wise classification, their requirements of the high number of training samples and computational resources make those models inefficient for high-density 3D point clouds. However, traditional machine learning classifiers require less training samples, so they are capable of reducing computational requirements, even considering the latest machine learning classifiers, particularly in ensemble learning of gradient boosting machines, the results can compete with deep learning models. In this study, we are studying the point-wise classification of high-density UAV LiDAR data and focusing on efficient feature extraction and a recent state-of-the-art gradient boosting machine learning classifier, LightGBM. Our proposed framework includes the following steps: at first, we are using point cloud sampling for creating sub-sampled point clouds, then we are calculating the features based on those scales implemented on GPU. Finally, we are using the LightGBM classifier for training and testing. For the evaluation of our framework, we used a publicly available benchmark dataset, Hessigheim 3D. According to the results, we achieved an overall accuracy of 87.59% and an average F1 score of 75.92%. Our framework has promising results and scores closer to deep learning models. However, more distinctive features are required to obtain more accurate results.