The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLVIII-M-2-2023
26 Jun 2023
 | 26 Jun 2023


S. Son, Y. H. Jo, H. I. Gwak, H. S. Cho, and K. C. Shin

Keywords: 3D Scanning, X-ray CT Segmentation, Boolean Modeling, 3D Digital Restoration, 3D Printing, Artifacts

Abstract. Restoration is carried out in order to restore damaged antiquities to their original form. Recently, research has been active in obtaining the target three-dimensional (3D) model by optical scanning and X-ray computed tomography (CT), as well as restoring artifacts via modeling. Because the cultural artifacts are restored in a virtual environment without direct contact with the cultural artifacts, secondary damage can be preserved. Furthermore, the restoration results can be used for the physical restoration of cultural artifacts via 3D printing. In this study, multi-digital modeling technology was used to restoration horse-shaped earthenware artifact that still had its missing part. After 3D printing, the restoration part was applied to the artifact. In order to record the shape of the artifact in detail, a high-precision 3D scanner was used to construct the shape of the artifact into a 3D model. Two models were then built as a reference for restoration: The legs of the excavated horse-shaped earthenware are believed to have been bent during burning, but they were reproduced in their entirety for restoration by conducting rigging and keyframe animation. For the restoration of the missing horse body, horse and rider-shaped vessels excavated from the same site were used as references. However, since the decorations on the reference surfaces obscured the horse body, a 3D model of the horse shape was obtained through X-ray CT segmentation modeling. Using the obtained model, the missing 3D horse body was restored. For the hind legs, the leg geometry reconstructed by the rigging was used as a reference. The hollow space inside the artifact and the structures that could be restored were further modeled. The finished model was completed by outputting a mock-up using a material extrusion system 3D printer, conducting a bonding test with actual artifacts, and finally creating the restoration model. Afterward, a photopolymerization system 3D printer is used to output the restoration part, and then it is applied to the artifacts through post-processing. A study for restoration artifacts based on multi-modeling techniques was proposed in this work. In particular, rigging and x-ray CT segmentation modeling were used to restoration the artifacts based on their original form and historical research. As such, multi-modeling techniques are an effective way to not only restore artifacts, but also to build a reference for restoration.