DIGITAL TWIN TO MONITOR, UNDERSTAND AND PRESERVE THE COMPLEXITY OF MULTI-SCALE NATURAL, AGRICULTURAL, DESIGNED LANDSCAPES AND ARCHITECTURE: BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION, TRANSFORMATION AND DECLINE AT VILLA ARCONATI SITE AT CASTELLAZZO OF BOLLATE (MI)
Keywords: Digital Twin, Historical Garden, Rural landscape, Preservation, Biodiversity, Earth Observation, Spherical Cameras, 3D immersive vegetation
Abstract. Digital Twin is conceived as a tool designed to monitor the effects of climate change and human activity on a global scale by integrating Earth Observation with local information. When applied to Cultural Heritage and built environment, this concept requires a detailed analysis to decode the richness of sites and context, highlighting specific local features. This paper aims to contribute to the preservation of the complexity of natural, agricultural, and designed landscapes, including the architectural scale. The case study is the Villa Arconati site in Castellazzo of Bollate, in the metropolitan-peri-urban area of Milan, which is a monumental 16th Century complex, with a significant historical and cultural value and an exceptional green biomass resource in a densely built area. The analysis is carried out at two scales, which complement each other: (i) an environmental-scale study that uses historical maps and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis from the last two decades to monitor biodiversity transformations and highlight the level of conservation; (ii) a local-scale multi-sensor survey, which uses experimental equipment, such as a spherical camera, to extract 3D vegetation models - referred to historical views - to set conservation criteria of the landscape layout. The multi-temporal-scale analysis helps to define sustainable future management practices (such as FAR and PAS) and raises awareness among the community and the visitors about the importance of preserving both the historical and architectural value and the site’s biodiversity.