The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XXXIX-B2
25 Jul 2012
 | 25 Jul 2012


H. Arefi and P. Reinartz

Keywords: Digital Surface Models(DSM), Generalization, Levels of Detail (LOD), Approximation, Building, prismatic, parametric DSM Enhancement

Abstract. In this article a multi-level approach is proposed for reconstruction-based improvement of high resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs). The concept of Levels of Detail (LOD) defined by CityGML standard has been considered as basis for abstraction levels of building roof structures. Here, the LOD1 and LOD2 which are related to prismatic and parametric roof shapes are reconstructed. Besides proposing a new approach for automatic LOD1 and LOD2 generation from high resolution DSMs, the algorithm contains two generalization levels namely horizontal and vertical. Both generalization levels are applied to prismatic model of buildings. The horizontal generalization allows controlling the approximation level of building footprints which is similar to cartographic generalization concept of the urban maps. In vertical generalization, the prismatic model is formed using an individual building height and continuous to included all flat structures locating in different height levels. The concept of LOD1 generation is based on approximation of the building footprints into rectangular or non-rectangular polygons. For a rectangular building containing one main orientation a method based on Minimum Bounding Rectangle (MBR) in employed. In contrast, a Combined Minimum Bounding Rectangle (CMBR) approach is proposed for regularization of non-rectilinear polygons, i.e. buildings without perpendicular edge directions. Both MBRand CMBR-based approaches are iteratively employed on building segments to reduce the original building footprints to a minimum number of nodes with maximum similarity to original shapes. A model driven approach based on the analysis of the 3D points of DSMs in a 2D projection plane is proposed for LOD2 generation. Accordingly, a building block is divided into smaller parts according to the direction and number of existing ridge lines. The 3D model is derived for each building part and finally, a complete parametric model is formed by merging all the 3D models of the individual parts and adjusting the nodes after the merging step. In order to provide an enhanced DSM, a surface model is provided for each building by interpolation of the internal points of the generated models. All interpolated models are situated on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of corresponding area to shape the enhanced DSM. Proposed DSM enhancement approach has been tested on a dataset from Munich central area. The original DSM is created using robust stereo matching of Worldview-2 stereo images. A quantitative assessment of the new DSM by comparing the heights of the ridges and eaves shows a standard deviation of better than 50cm.