The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XL-1/W5
11 Dec 2015
 | 11 Dec 2015


M. Ghanea, M. Moradi, and K. Kabiri

Keywords: Red Tide, MODIS Ocean Color Product, Chlorophyll-a, Normalized Fluorescence Line Height, Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient, the Strait of Hormuz

Abstract. Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT) outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loading, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG) was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances.

Ocean color satellite data have many advantages to monitor and alarm RT occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor has estimated satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH), and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm (kd490). It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions.

This study monitors variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in these products were no synchronously investigated under RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB) image was used to illustrate better water variations. ERGB image was built with three normalized leaving water radiance between 443 to 560nm. All the above data processes were applied by SeaDAS 7 software package. The Strait of Hormuz was selected as the study area in the eastern part of the PG. Images including high cloud coverage (>50%) over the study area were filtered out. The classification maps of the above products were shown during RT and normal periods. Monthly variations of mentioned products were calculated for the dates before, during, and after RT appearance. The results were demonstrated as time-series diagrams. All the above calculations and presentations were performed in Matlab 7 software package.

The results show that MODIS Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 increased during the 2008 RT. Based on the feedback of these parameters under RT conditions, hybrid ocean color index (HOCI) is defined. HOCI is able to display better water variations during RT outbreak. High values of HOCI show RT affected areas.