Regulations in the field of Geo-Information
Keywords: Standards, Mapping, Geodesy, Photogrammetry
Abstract. The geomatics profession has gone through a major revolution during the last two decades with the emergence of advanced GNSS, GIS and Remote Sensing technologies. These technologies have changed the core principles and working procedures of geomatics professionals. For this reason, surveying and mapping regulations, standards and specifications should be updated to reflect these changes.
In Israel, the "Survey Regulations" is the principal document that regulates the professional activities in four key areas geodetic control, mapping, cadastre and Georaphic information systems. Licensed Surveyors and mapping professionals in Israel are required to work according to those regulations. This year a new set of regulations have been published and include a few major amendments as follows:
In the Geodesy chapter, horizontal control is officially based on the Israeli network of Continuously Operating GNSS Reference Stations (CORS). The regulations were phrased in a manner that will allow minor datum changes to the CORS stations due to Earth Crustal Movements. Moreover, the regulations permit the use of GNSS for low accuracy height measurements.
In the Cadastre chapter, the most critical change is the move to Coordinate Based Cadastre (CBC). Each parcel corner point is ranked according to its quality (accuracy and clarity of definition). The highest ranking for a parcel corner is 1. A point with a rank of 1 is defined by its coordinates alone. Any other contradicting evidence is inferior to the coordinates values. Cadastral Information is stored and managed via the National Cadastral Databases.
In the Mapping and GIS chapter; the traditional paper maps (ranked by scale) are replaced by digital maps or spatial databases. These spatial databases are ranked by their quality level. Quality level is determined (similar to the ISO19157 Standard) by logical consistency, completeness, positional accuracy, attribute accuracy, temporal accuracy and usability. Metadata is another critical component of any spatial database. Every component in a map should have a metadata identification, even if the map was compiled from multiple resources. The regulations permit the use of advanced sensors and mapping techniques including LIDAR and digita l cameras that have been certified and meet the defined criteria. The article reviews these new regulations and the decision that led to them.