AIRBORNE LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LIDAR) DERIVED DEFORMATION FROM THE MW 6.0 24 AUGUST, 2014 SOUTH NAPA EARTHQUAKE ESTIMATED BY TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL POINT CLOUD CHANGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES
Keywords: LiDAR, Change Detection, ICP, PIV, Earthquake Deformation, Near Field, Geodetic Marker
Abstract. Remote sensing via LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) has proven extremely useful in both Earth science and hazard related studies. Surveys taken before and after an earthquake for example, can provide decimeter-level, 3D near-field estimates of land deformation that offer better spatial coverage of the near field rupture zone than other geodetic methods (e.g., InSAR, GNSS, or alignment array). In this study, we compare and contrast estimates of deformation obtained from different pre and post-event airborne laser scanning (ALS) data sets of the 2014 South Napa Earthquake using two change detection algorithms, Iterative Control Point (ICP) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The ICP algorithm is a closest point based registration algorithm that can iteratively acquire three dimensional deformations from airborne LiDAR data sets. By employing a newly proposed partition scheme, “moving window,” to handle the large spatial scale point cloud over the earthquake rupture area, the ICP process applies a rigid registration of data sets within an overlapped window to enhance the change detection results of the local, spatially varying surface deformation near-fault. The other algorithm, PIV, is a well-established, two dimensional image co-registration and correlation technique developed in fluid mechanics research and later applied to geotechnical studies. Adapted here for an earthquake with little vertical movement, the 3D point cloud is interpolated into a 2D DTM image and horizontal deformation is determined by assessing the cross-correlation of interrogation areas within the images to find the most likely deformation between two areas. Both the PIV process and the ICP algorithm are further benefited by a presented, novel use of urban geodetic markers. Analogous to the persistent scatterer technique employed with differential radar observations, this new LiDAR application exploits a classified point cloud dataset to assist the change detection algorithms. Ground deformation results and statistics from these techniques are presented and discussed here with supplementary analyses of the differences between techniques and the effects of temporal spacing between LiDAR datasets. Results show that both change detection methods provide consistent near field deformation comparable to field observed offsets. The deformation can vary in quality but estimated standard deviations are always below thirty one centimeters. This variation in quality differentiates the methods and proves that factors such as geodetic markers and temporal spacing play major roles in the outcomes of ALS change detection surveys.