The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLI-B3
09 Jun 2016
 | 09 Jun 2016


K. M. Vestena, D. R. Dos Santos, E. M. Oilveira Jr., N. L. Pavan, and K. Khoshelham

Keywords: RGB-D data, dual-number quaternions, registration, loop closing, globally consistent maps

Abstract. Existing 3D indoor mapping of RGB-D data are prominently point-based and feature-based methods. In most cases iterative closest point (ICP) and its variants are generally used for pairwise registration process. Considering that the ICP algorithm requires an relatively accurate initial transformation and high overlap a weighted closed-form solution for RGB-D data registration is proposed. In this solution, we weighted and normalized the 3D points based on the theoretical random errors and the dual-number quaternions are used to represent the 3D rigid body motion. Basically, dual-number quaternions provide a closed-form solution by minimizing a cost function. The most important advantage of the closed-form solution is that it provides the optimal transformation in one-step, it does not need to calculate good initial estimates and expressively decreases the demand for computer resources in contrast to the iterative method. Basically, first our method exploits RGB information. We employed a scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT) for extracting, detecting, and matching features. It is able to detect and describe local features that are invariant to scaling and rotation. To detect and filter outliers, we used random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm, jointly with an statistical dispersion called interquartile range (IQR). After, a new RGB-D loop-closure solution is implemented based on the volumetric information between pair of point clouds and the dispersion of the random errors. The loop-closure consists to recognize when the sensor revisits some region. Finally, a globally consistent map is created to minimize the registration errors via a graph-based optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with a Kinect dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed method can properly map the indoor environment with an absolute accuracy around 1.5% of the travel of a trajectory.