The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLI-B3
09 Jun 2016
 | 09 Jun 2016


D. Frommholz, M. Linkiewicz, and A. M. Poznanska

Keywords: Aerial, Oblique, Reconstruction, Texture Mapping, Classification, Rendering, CityGML

Abstract. This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. Further, the resulting unrectified texture atlases are analyzed for fac¸ade elements like windows to be reintegrated into the original 3D models. Tests on real-world data of Heligoland/ Germany comprising more than 800 buildings exposed a median positional deviation of 0.31 m at the fac¸ades compared to the cadastral map, a correctness of 67% for the detected windows and good visual quality when being rendered with GPU-based perspective correction. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching (SGM). The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution. Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model (DSM) of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. The atlas bitmap is passed to a commercial object-based image analysis (OBIA) tool running a custom rule set to identify windows on the contained fac¸ade patches. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and conditionally grown, fused and filtered morphologically. The output polygons are vectorized and reintegrated into the previously reconstructed buildings by sparsely ray-tracing their vertices. Finally the enhanced 3D models get stored as textured geometry for visualization and semantically annotated ”LOD-2.5” CityGML objects for GIS applications.