The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLI-B3
10 Jun 2016
 | 10 Jun 2016


J. J. Hutton, N. Gopaul, X. Zhang, J. Wang, V. Menon, D. Rieck, A. Kipka, and F. Pastor

Keywords: Differential GNSS, Sensor Orientation, Mobile Mapping, GNSS-Aided Inertial, Georeferenicng, Airborne Mapping, Direct Geroeferencing, PPP

Abstract. For almost two decades mobile mapping systems have done their georeferencing using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to measure position and inertial sensors to measure orientation. In order to achieve cm level position accuracy, a technique referred to as post-processed carrier phase differential GNSS (DGNSS) is used. For this technique to be effective the maximum distance to a single Reference Station should be no more than 20 km, and when using a network of Reference Stations the distance to the nearest station should no more than about 70 km. This need to set up local Reference Stations limits productivity and increases costs, especially when mapping large areas or long linear features such as roads or pipelines.

An alternative technique to DGNSS for high-accuracy positioning from GNSS is the so-called Precise Point Positioning or PPP method. In this case instead of differencing the rover observables with the Reference Station observables to cancel out common errors, an advanced model for every aspect of the GNSS error chain is developed and parameterized to within an accuracy of a few cm. The Trimble Centerpoint RTX positioning solution combines the methodology of PPP with advanced ambiguity resolution technology to produce cm level accuracies without the need for local reference stations. It achieves this through a global deployment of highly redundant monitoring stations that are connected through the internet and are used to determine the precise satellite data with maximum accuracy, robustness, continuity and reliability, along with advance algorithms and receiver and antenna calibrations.

This paper presents a new post-processed realization of the Trimble Centerpoint RTX technology integrated into the Applanix POSPac MMS GNSS-Aided Inertial software for mobile mapping. Real-world results from over 100 airborne flights evaluated against a DGNSS network reference are presented which show that the post-processed Centerpoint RTX solution agrees with the DGNSS solution to better than 2.9 cm RMSE Horizontal and 5.5 cm RMSE Vertical. Such accuracies are sufficient to meet the requirements for a majority of airborne mapping applications.