The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLII-2/W10
17 Apr 2019
 | 17 Apr 2019


O. Kahmen, R. Rofallski, N. Conen, and T. Luhmann

Keywords: underwater photogrammetry, multi-camera calibration, scale definition, relative orientation, stereo photogrammetry, simulated data

Abstract. In multimedia photogrammetry, multi-camera systems often provide scale by a calibrated relative orientation. Camera calibration via bundle adjustment is a well-established standard procedure in single-medium photogrammetry. When using standard software and applying the collinearity equations in multimedia photogrammetry, the refractive interfaces are modelled in an implicit form. This contribution analyses different calibration strategies for bundle-invariant interfaces. To evaluate the effects of implicitly modelling the refractive effects within a bundle adjustment, synthetic datasets are simulated. Contrary to many publications, systematic effects of the exterior orientations can be verified with simulated data. The behaviour of interior, exterior and relative orientation parameters is analysed using error-free synthetic datasets. The relative orientation of a stereo camera shows systematic effects, when the angle of convergence varies and when the synthetic interface is set up at different distances to the camera. It becomes clear, that in most cases the implicit modelling is not suitable for multimedia photogrammetry. An explicit modelling of the refractive interfaces is implemented into a bundle adjustment. This strict model is analysed and compared with the implicit form regarding systematic effects in orientation parameters as well as errors in object space. In a real experiment, the discrepancies between the implicit form using standard software and the explicit modelling using our own implementation are quantified. It is highly advisable to model the interfaces strictly, since the implicit modelling might lead to relevant errors in object space.