SUPERVISED DETECTION OF BOMB CRATERS IN HISTORICAL AERIAL IMAGES USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS
Keywords: Object Detection, Convolutional Neural Networks, Aerial Wartime Images, Bomb Craters
Abstract. The aftermath of the air strikes during World War II is still present today. Numerous bombs dropped by planes did not explode, still exist in the ground and pose a considerable explosion hazard. Tracking down these duds can be tackled by detecting bomb craters. The existence of a dud can be inferred from the existence of a crater. This work proposes a method for the automatic detection of bomb craters in aerial wartime images. First of all, crater candidates are extracted from an image using a blob detector. Based on given crater references, for every candidate it is checked whether it, in fact, represents a crater or not. Candidates from various aerial images are used to train, validate and test Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) in the context of a two-class classification problem. A loss function (controlling what the CNNs are learning) is adapted to the given task. The trained CNNs are then used for the classification of crater candidates. Our work focuses on the classification of crater candidates and we investigate if combining data from related domains is beneficial for the classification. We achieve a F1-score of up to 65.4% when classifying crater candidates with a realistic class distribution.