THE COMBINATION OF TERRESTRIAL LIDAR AND UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY FOR INTERACTIVE ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE VISUALIZATION USING UNITY 3D GAME ENGINE
Keywords: Terrestrial Lidar, UAV Photogrammetry, architectural heritage, unity 3D, game engine
Abstract. The digital 3D documentation of architectural heritage using advanced 3D measurement technologies such as UAV photogrammetry and terrestrial LiDAR (TLS) becomes a potential and efficient method since it can produce 3D pointclouds in detail and high density of pointclouds levels. However, TLS is unable to scan the roof part of tall building, whereas UAV photogrammetry achieves high density of pointclouds at that area. In order to make a complete 3D pointclouds of heritage building, we merged and integrated the TLS and UAV pointclouds data by using Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithms into one reference system. In this study, we collected two architectural heritage building in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, i.e., "Vredeburg Fort Museum (VFM)" and "Kotagede Great Mosque (KGM)", the oldest mosque in Yogyakarta. For the data acquisition, we used Faro Focus X330 and GLS 2000 Laser Scanner. We produced three-dimensional point clouds from UAV imagery by using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo (SfM-MVS) technique through Photoscan software. In order to merging and integrating both of pointclouds data, Maptek I-Site Studio 6.1 with Educational License was used. Those data were successfully registered, and according to the registration report, we had observed 20.60 mm of RMS error. The 3D models and their textures in outdoor and indoor side were processed using Autodesk software. Modelling was carried out on the structure of building’s façade base on simple geometric primitive as planes, straight lines, circles, spheres and cylinder. For interactive visualization, a modern and widely accessible game engine technology (Unity3D) was used. The result was an interactive displaying 3D model of an architectural heritage building in LOD3 level with spatial function for measuring the size and dimension, as well as the area of object. Finally, we created the online version of interactive 3D viewer utilizing WebGL API and Mapbox Unity SDK.