PHOTOGRAMMETRY IN 3D MODELLING OF HUMAN BONE STRUCTURES FROM RADIOGRAPHS
Keywords: Medical Photogrammetry, X-ray images, 3D Reconstruction, Calibration, sensor models, stereoradiography
Abstract. Photogrammetry can have great impact on the success of medical processes for diagnosis, treatment and surgeries. Precise 3D models which can be achieved by photogrammetry improve considerably the results of orthopedic surgeries and processes. Usual 3D imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have some limitations such as being used only in non-weight-bearing positions, costs and high radiation dose(for CT) and limitations of MRI for patients with ferromagnetic implants or objects in their bodies. 3D reconstruction of bony structures from biplanar X-ray images is a reliable and accepted alternative for achieving accurate 3D information with low dose radiation in weight-bearing positions. The information can be obtained from multi-view radiographs by using photogrammetry. The primary step for 3D reconstruction of human bone structure from medical X-ray images is calibration which is done by applying principles of photogrammetry. After the calibration step, 3D reconstruction can be done using efficient methods with different levels of automation. Because of the different nature of X-ray images from optical images, there are distinct challenges in medical applications for calibration step of stereoradiography. In this paper, after demonstrating the general steps and principles of 3D reconstruction from X-ray images, a comparison will be done on calibration methods for 3D reconstruction from radiographs and they are assessed from photogrammetry point of view by considering various metrics such as their camera models, calibration objects, accuracy, availability, patient-friendly and cost.