INVESTIGATION OF 1 : 1,000 SCALE MAP GENERATION BY STEREO PLOTTING USING UAV IMAGES
Keywords: UAV, external orientation, incremental bundle, stereoscopic plotting
Abstract. Large scale maps and image mosaics are representative geospatial data that can be extracted from UAV images. Map drawing using UAV images can be performed either by creating orthoimages and digitizing them, or by stereo plotting. While maps generated by digitization may serve the need for geospatial data, many institutions and organizations require map drawing using stereoscopic vision on stereo plotting systems. However, there are several aspects to be checked for UAV images to be utilized for stereo plotting. The first aspect is the accuracy of exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) generated through automated bundle adjustment processes. It is well known that GPS and IMU sensors mounted on a UAV are not very accurate. It is necessary to adjust initial EOPs accurately using tie points. For this purpose, we have developed a photogrammetric incremental bundle adjustment procedure. The second aspect is unstable shooting conditions compared to aerial photographing. Unstable image acquisition may bring uneven stereo coverage, which will result in accuracy loss eventually. Oblique stereo pairs will create eye fatigue. The third aspect is small coverage of UAV images. This aspect will raise efficiency issue for stereo plotting of UAV images. More importantly, this aspect will make contour generation from UAV images very difficult. This paper will discuss effects relate to these three aspects. In this study, we tried to generate 1 : 1,000 scale map from the dataset using EOPs generated from software developed in-house. We evaluated Y-disparity of the tie points extracted automatically through the photogrammetric incremental bundle adjustment process. We could confirm that stereoscopic viewing is possible. Stereoscopic plotting work was carried out by a professional photogrammetrist. In order to analyse the accuracy of the map drawing using stereoscopic vision, we compared the horizontal and vertical position difference between adjacent models after drawing a specific model. The results of analysis showed that the errors were within the specification of 1 : 1,000 map. Although the Y-parallax can be eliminated, it is still necessary to improve the accuracy of absolute ground position error in order to apply this technique to the actual work. There are a few models in which the difference in height between adjacent models is about 40 cm. We analysed the stability of UAV images by checking angle differences between adjacent images. We also analysed the average area covered by one stereo model and discussed the possible difficulty associated with this narrow coverage. In the future we consider how to reduce position errors and improve map drawing performances from UAVs.