GIS AND BIM INTEGRATION AT DATA LEVEL: A REVIEW
Keywords: GIS, BIM, CityGML, IFC, and data Integration models
Abstract. City Geography Markup Language (CityGML) and Industry Foundation Class (IFC) are the two most popular data exchange format for the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Building Information Modelling (BIM) respectively and has been identified by many researchers as an auspicious means of data interoperability between the two domains but with challenges on the compatibility between them. The main issue is the data loss in the process of information transformation. The success of integrating these two domains (GIS and BIM objects) is a great achievement toward solving problems in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC), Facility Management (FM), Disaster Management (DM) sectors. Nevertheless, as we all know GIS and BIM are different fields used by different professionals using different software packages, used for different purposes, it is definitely face with many challenges including data interoperability, mismatch and loss of semantic information are bound to occur during the process of integration. In order to comprehend the two domains and their data models of CityGML and IFC. This paper review existing models on GIS and BIM developed by different researchers, the complementarity and compatibility of GIS and BIM on the previous integration techniques were also reviewed and finally, the paper review the integration of GIS and BIM at the data level aimed at solving different problems surrounding it by considering the transformation of coordinates at geometric level from CityGML to IFC, in order to achieve flow of information between GIS and BIM.