The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
Publications Copernicus
Articles | Volume XLIII-B1-2020
06 Aug 2020
 | 06 Aug 2020


P. Trusheim and C. Heipke

Keywords: visual localization, dynamic ground control points, sequential bundle adjustment, simulation

Abstract. Localization is one of the first steps in navigation. Especially due to the rapid development in automated driving, a precise and reliable localization becomes essential. In this paper, we report an investigation of the usage of dynamic ground control points (GCP) in visual localization in an automotive environment. Instead of having fixed positions, dynamic GCPs move together with the camera. As a measure of quality, we employ the precision of the bundle adjustment results. In our experiments, we simulate and investigate different realistic traffic scenarios. After investigating the role of tie points, we compare an approach using dynamic GCPs to an approach with static GCPs to answer the question how a comparable precision can be reached for visual localization. We show, that in our scenario, where two dynamic GCPs move together with a camera, similar results are indeed obtained to using a number of static GCPs distributed over the whole trajectory. In another experiment, we take a closer look at sliding window bundle adjustments. Sliding windows make it possible to work with an arbitrarily large number of images and to still obtain near real-time results. We investigate this approach in combination with dynamic GCPs and vary the no. of images per window.