AN AUTOMATIC ICP-BASED 2D-3D REGISTRATION METHOD FOR A HIGH-SPEED BIPLANAR VIDEORADIOGRAPHY IMAGING SYSTEM
Keywords: 2D-3D registration, ICP, bundle adjustment, biplanar videoradiography, dual fluoroscopy, biomechanics, magnetic resonance imaging
Abstract. High-Speed Biplanar Videoradiography (HSBV) is an X-ray based non-invasive imaging system that can be used to derive dynamic bony translations and rotations. The 2D-3D registration process matches a 3D bone model acquired from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans with the 2D X-ray image pairs. This study focuses on the registration of MRI data as it can acquire detailed soft tissue contrast that cannot be easily discerned in CT scans. A novel 2D-3D registration method is reported in this paper that is suitable for the MRI-based bone models with high precision and high efficiency. In addition, an automatic initialization procedure with 64 starting poses is established to avoid user intervention in the registration. The method has been tested using the HSBV image sequence of a knee joint during walking. Thirty-five consecutive poses from the sequence were tested for the registration, and 50 non-consecutive poses randomly selected from the sequence were tested for the automatic initialization. The registration precision for each axis was 0.49 to 0.54 mm. For the initialization validation test, 48 over 50 frames were successfully initialized and two failed due to portions of the joint falling outside of the field-of-view of the system. The average time for each initialization is only about 6 min. The improved 2D-3D registration will allow determination of precise 3D kinematic parameters with high efficiency. These kinematic parameters can be used to calculate joint cartilage contact mechanics that provide insight into the mechanical processes and mechanisms of joint degeneration or pathology.