AN ITERATIVE APPROACH FOR SELF-CALIBRATING BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT
Keywords: Self-Calibration, Bundle Adjustment, Iteration, Virtual Image, Image Orientation, Spatial Accuracy
Abstract. Obtaining accurate image interior and exterior orientations is the key to improve 3D measurement accuracy besides reliable and accurate image matching. A majority of cameras used for those tasks are non-metric cameras. Non-metric cameras commonly suffer various distortions. Generally, there are two ways to remove these distortions: 1) conducting prior camera calibration in a controlled environment; 2) applying self-calibrating bundle adjustment in the application environment. Both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages but one thing is common that there is no universal calibration model available so far which can remove all sorts of distortions on images and systemic errors of image orientations. Instead of developing additional calibration models for camera calibration and self-calibrating adjustment, this paper presents a novel approach which applies self-calibrating bundle adjustment in an iterative fashion: after performing a conventional self-calibrating bundle adjustment, the image coordinates of tie points are re-calculated using the newly obtained self-calibration model coefficients, and the self-calibrating bundle adjustment is applied again in the hope that the remaining distortions and systematic errors will be reduced further within next a few iterations. Using a “virtual image” concept this iterative approach does not require to resample images or/and re-measure tie points during iterations, only costs a few additional iterations computational resource. Several trails under various application environments are conducted using this proposed iterative approach and the results indicate that not only the distortions can be reduced further but also image orientations become much stable after a few iterations.