QUALITY EVALUATION OF 3D BUILDING MODELS BASED ON LOW-ALTITUDE IMAGERY AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS
Keywords: Digital Image, Point Cloud, 3D Mesh, 3D Reconstruction, 3D Model, Level of Detail, Quality, Accuracy
Abstract. The term “3D building models” is used in relation to the CityGML models and building information modelling. Reconstruction and modelling of 3D building objects in urban areas becomes a common trend and finds a wide spectrum of utilitarian applications. The paper presents the quality assessment of two multifaceted 3D building models, which were obtained from two open-access databases: Polish national Geoportal (accuracy in LOD 2 standard) and Trimble SketchUp Warehouse (accuracy in LOD 2 standard with information about architectural details of façades). The Geoportal 3D models were primary created based on the airborne laser scanning data (density 12 pts/sq. m, elevation accuracy to 0.10 m) collected during Informatic System for Country Protection against extraordinary hazards project. The testing was performed using different validation low-altitude photogrammetric datasets: RIEGL LMS-Q680i airborne laser scanning point cloud (min. density 25 pts/sq. m and height accuracy 0.03 m), and image-based Phase One iXU-RS 1000 point cloud (average accuracy in the horizontal and in the vertical plane is respectively to 0.015 m and 0.030 m). The visual comparison, heat maps with the function of the signed distance, and histograms in predefined ranges were used to evaluate the quality and accuracy of 3D building models. The aspect of error sources that occurred during the modelling process was also discussed.