SFOC: A NOVEL MULTI-DIRECTIONAL AND MULTI-SCALE STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTOR FOR MULTIMODAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGE MATCHING
Keywords: Multimodal images, Image matching, SFOC, Fast-NCCSFOC, integral images
Abstract. Accurate matching of multimodal remote sensing (RS) images (e.g., optical, infrared, LiDAR, SAR, and rasterized maps) is still an ongoing challenge because of nonlinear radiometric differences (NRD) between these images. Considering that structural properties are preserved between multimodal images, this paper proposes a robust matching method based on multi-directional and multi-scale structural features, which consist of two critical steps. Firstly, a novel structural descriptor named the Steerable Filters of first- and second-Order Channels (SFOC) is constructed to address severe NRD, which combines the first- and second-order gradient information by using the steerable filters to depict multi-directional and multi-scale structural features of images. Meanwhile, SFOC is further enhanced by performing the dilated Gaussian convolutions with different dilated rates on it, which can capture multi-level context structural features and improve the ability to resist noise. Then, a fast similarity measure, called Fast Normalized Cross-Correlation (Fast-NCCSFOC), is established to detect correspondences by a template matching scheme, which employs the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique and the integral image to improve the matching efficiency. The performance of the proposed SFOC has been evaluated with many different kinds of multimodal RS images, and experimental results show its superior matching performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods.