SENTINEL-5P NO2 DATA: CROSS-VALIDATION AND COMPARISON WITH GROUND MEASUREMENTS
Keywords: health, air pollution, Sentinel-5, TROPOMI, NOx, Copernicus Programme, machine learning
Abstract. Sentinel-5P (S5P) data provide information on atmospheric pollutants daily, and, for higher latitudes, consequent orbits partially overlap the same day. Provided clear atmospheric conditions, these data can provide insights on emission hotspots and on spatial distribution of critical air quality issues. The purpose of this work is to analyse several aspects of NO2 data from S5P over the years 2019, 2020 and 2021, in particular: (i) yearly average values between S5P data and 624 ground measurement stations were tested for correlation; (ii) 387 pairs of images from overlapping orbits on the same day were used to test for correlation on consecutive images with four different methods – simple linear regression over all valid cell values across the two images, over a subset with a low cloud fraction, and linear and tree-based methods using multiple predictors; (iii) local maxima values extracted from yearly NO2 emission maps were analysed to check potential hotspots of NO2 emissions.
Results show that ground measurements correlate with S5P values, with r-squared values of 0.37 and 0.43 and RMSE of 7.4 and 8.6 µmol/m2 respectively for 2019 and 2020. Simple linear regression of overlapping consequent images returned average and standard deviation (sd) on r-squared respectively of 0.50(sd=0.21) and for RMSE of 11.3(sd=4.2) µmol/m2. Points from local maxima clearly detected 19 specific positions in large cities or nearby industrial areas, mostly in the north of Italy, with average NO2 values above 90 µmol/m2 in some cases consistently over the three years, proving that S5P imagery is a valid index for spatial distribution of NO2 concentration and air quality.