GEOMATICS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BUILT HERITAGE THROUGH BIM SYSTEMS. THE TRAINING OF NEW EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONAL FIGURES
Keywords: Training curriculum, Geomatics, HBIM
Abstract. Geomatics is trying to redefine its role in the Italian higher-level educational system according to the new technological developments. The recent thematic thread of Building Information Modelling (BIM) systems contributes to the new role of Geomatics inside universities and, more generally, in the training process. BIM systems propose new ways of managing the construction process throughout building life cycle, from design to construction and management. They allow managing large flows of information, organized and shared among the different operators in the construction chain, through databases linked to three-dimensional objects. The BIM approach is based on two principles: interoperability and digitization.
BIM was born as an application dedicated to new buildings, to promote the optimization of the entire life cycle of the building, from design to management. Many countries have been active in this sector for years, while others are now joining the digitization approach. In this complex scenario, the proposal to adopt the BIM process not only for the management of new constructions but also for the intervention on the existing one, is relevant in a country, like Italy, with a very rich history and a high presence of built historical heritage. Maurice Murphy coined the term HBIM (Historic Building Information Modelling), referring to BIM systems applied to historical buildings that need intervention and subsequent management.
Geomatics plays a crucial role in HBIM as it is the primary tool for the digitization of built heritage and to obtain a model of the existing, an "as-built" model. In order to achieve this result, laser scanner and photogrammetry are the main tools, and they are involved in the so-called Scan2Bim process. The other important role is connected with the modeling stage to arrive at a three-dimensional representation suitable for common BIM authoring software while maintaining the rigor and accuracy that characterize the geomatic approach.
The fundamental role of Geomatics in this context requires the training of personnel specialized in surveying and managing the acquired data through HBIM systems. There are new training courses and masters in the field of BIM systems, hosted by Politecnico di Milano at the Mantua Campus, aimed at training new figures with a specific curriculum, including Geomatics.
The elements that characterize the training course are the knowledge of the principles and methods of data and the evaluation of achievable accuracy and admissible errors. It is also important to address issues that are still not completely solved in HBIM community, such as the type of modeling the best levels of detail of geometric and information content and the most practical aspects of commercial BIM authoring software.
The article describes the experience carried out by Politecnico di Milano and tries to define, afterward, the training curriculum for HBIM experts, in which Geomatics plays an essential role, not only in the data acquisition phase but also in geometric and informative modeling.