GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF IMPERVIOUS SURFACES AND THEIR EFFECT ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE IN ABUJA, NIGERIA
Keywords: Impervious surfaces, Land Surface Temperature (LST), Normalized Difference Impervious Surface Index (NDISI), Landsat ETM+/OLI/TIRS, Energy balance, Abuja city
Abstract. The rapid urban expansion in Abuja, Nigeria, has resulted in the replacement of land surface previously occupied by natural vegetation with various impermeable materials. This study examines the impact of the spatial distribution of impervious surfaces (IS) on land surface temperature (LST) in the study area using both graphical and quantitative approach. A Normalized Difference Impervious Surface Index (NDISI) was adopted to estimate IS and LST from Landsat ETM+ and OLI/TIRS satellite images (path: 189, row: 54) of Abuja for 4 distinct epochs of 2004, 2008, 2014 and 2018. In order to analyze the effect of IS on LST, the relationship between the normalized difference indices and LST, for each epoch, were determined using regression and correlation analyses. Results show the spatial patterns of impervious surfaces as distributed over Abuja, Nigeria and its impact on LST dynamics. It was observed that mean surface temperature increased by at least 2 °C every 4 years. Furthermore, results of the correlation analysis between NDISI and LST reveal that there exist varying positive correlations between the two variables in with correlation coefficients; R = 0.511, 0.166, 0.505, 0.785 in 2004,2008, 2014 and 2018 respectively, suggesting that impervious surfaces areas accelerate LST rise and Urban Heat Island (UHI) formation. This study gives great insight on the concept of impervious surfaces and its spatial pattern in Abuja city, Nigeria. The study recommends the widespread use of highly reflective or natural surfaces for rooftops, pavements and roads and that afforestation should be encouraged to increase green areas.