IMAGE ORIENTATION WITH A HYBRID PIPELINE ROBUST TO ROTATIONS AND WIDE-BASELINES
Keywords: keypoints, detectors, descriptors, deep learning, image matching, Structure-from-Motion, photogrammetry
Abstract. The extraction of reliable and repeatable interest points among images is a fundamental step for automatic image orientation (Structure-From-Motion). Despite recent progresses, open issues in challenging conditions - such as wide baselines and strong light variations - are still present. Over the years, traditional hand-crafted methods have been paired by learning-based approaches, progressively updating the state-of-the-art according to recent benchmarks. Notwithstanding these advancements, learning-based methods are often not suitable for real photogrammetric surveys due to their lack of rotation invariance, a fundamental requirement for these specific applications. This paper proposes a novel hybrid image matching pipeline which employs both hand-crafted and deep-based components, to extract reliable rotational invariant keypoints optimized for wide-baseline scenarios. The proposed hybrid pipeline was compared with other hand-crafted and learning-based state-of-the-art approaches on some photogrammetric datasets using metric ground-truth data. Results show that the proposed hybrid matching pipeline has high accuracy and appeared to be the only method among the evaluated ones able to register images in the most challenging wide-baseline scenarios.