THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BDS POSITIONING IN NORDIC AREAS BASED ON THE SMARTPHONE
Keywords: BDS positioning, LBS, performance, smartphone, Nordic areas
Abstract. Nowadays, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is widely used in many applications. As a new system, China's BeiDou navigation system (BDS) is emerging in recent years. The last satellite of the third generation global BeiDou navigation system (BDS-3) has been successfully launched on June 23 in 2020, which means that BDS can offer navigation services worldwide. We evaluate the quality of BDS signals and analyze the performance of BDS positioning based on the smartphone in Espoo, Finland. The static and kinematic experiments were implemented in the parking lot of the Finish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) and a highway route in Espoo, respectively. Experimental results show that BDS has good satellite visibility and geometric distribution. The signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0) of BDS-2 reaches 34.22 dB-Hz, which is comparable to the Global Positioning System (GPS). However, the signal carrier-to-noise density of BDS-3 is slightly lower than BDS-2, which is due to the significant number of BDS-3 satellites at low elevation angles. The horizontal precision of BDS positioning in the static and kinematic experiment is comparable to GPS in the east direction and slightly inferior to GPS in the north direction. However, the BDS shows poor precision in the up direction. In addition, the integration of BDS with other GNSS systems can significantly improve the positioning precision. This study intends to provide a reference for further research on the BDS global Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services, particularly for LBS and smartphone positioning.